La prensa nos recomienda:
Many Jews have also immigrated there, some of them Sephardic. A contribution from Indigenous peoples of the Americas was not detectable in the studied sample. The estimates show that there were 30, whites, out of a total population of 70,, in the colony of Santo Domingo.
The second census, taken in , covered race, religion, literacy, nationality, labor force, and urban—rural residence. As Martinique is an overseas French department, most whites are French. An exhaustive census was taken by Lieutenant General Alexander O'Reilly , which, according to some sources, showed 17, whites out of a total population of 44, The census was taken by the United States War Department. Since , Puerto Rico has been included in every decennial census taken by the United States.
White Puerto Ricans of European, mostly Spanish, descent are said to comprise the majority, with S invaded and took control of the island, In , for the first time in fifty years, the census asked people to define their race and found the percentage of whites had risen to From the beginning of the 20th century, American observers remarked on the "surprising preponderance of the white race" on the island. One travel writer called Puerto Rico "the whitest of the Antilles".
In a widely distributed piece, a geologist wrote that the island was "notable among the West Indian group for the reason that its preponderant population is of the white race". In a more academic book he reiterated that "Porto Rico, at least, has not become Africanized ". During the 19th century, hundreds of Corsican , French , Middle Eastern, and Portuguese families, along with large numbers of immigrants from Spain mainly from Catalonia , Asturias , Galicia , the Balearic Islands , Andalusia , and the Canary Islands and numerous Spanish loyalists from Spain's former colonies in South America, arrived in Puerto Rico.
Other settlers have included Irish , Scots, Germans , and Italians. Thousands of immigrants were granted land from Spain during the Real Cedula de Gracias de Royal Decree of Graces of , which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land. According to a genetic research by the University of Brasilia , Puerto Rican genetic admixture consists in a From the late 19th century to when the Panama Canal opened, European migrants used Costa Rica to get across the isthmus of Central America to reach the west coast of the United States California.
Many of the first Spanish colonists in Costa Rica may have been Jewish converts to Christianity who were expelled from Spain in and fled to colonial backwaters to avoid the Inquisition.
From the s to the early s, journalistic and official anti-Semitic campaigns fueled harassment of Jews; however, by the s and s, the immigrants won greater acceptance. Most of the 3, Costa Rican Jews today are not highly observant, but they remain largely endogamous. According to the official Census in El Salvador, According to genetic research by the University of Brasilia , Salvadoran genetic admixture shows an average of A national study estimated that white Guatemalans are During the 19th and 20th centuries, Guatemala had massive immigration from Germany , Belgium , and Italy , as well as, to a lesser extent, Spain , France , Great Britain , Denmark , Switzerland , Netherlands , Scandinavian countries , Ireland , and other European countries.
Later, after armed conflict that destroyed many non-white families, the percentage had risen, as well as that of castizos mixture of the mestizo population and European descent and mestizos with European predominance. In the 19th century, Nicaragua experienced a wave of immigration, primarily from Europe.
In particular, families from Germany, Italy, Spain, France, and Belgium moved to Nicaragua to set up businesses with money they brought from Europe. They established many agricultural businesses, such as coffee and sugarcane plantations, as well as newspapers, hotels, and banks. There is also a small Middle Eastern—Nicaraguan community of Syrian, Armenian, Palestinian, Jewish, and Lebanese people in Nicaragua, with a total population of about 30, There is also a sizable and influential Jewish community.
A autosomal DNA study found the Argentine population to average These percentages show an estimated population of million white people in Argentina. White Argentines are dispersed throughout the country, but their greatest concentration is in the east-central region of Pampas , the southern region of Patagonia , and in the west-central region of Cuyo. The white population residing in Argentina is mostly descended from immigrants who arrived from Europe and the Middle East between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with a smaller proportion from Spaniards of the colonial period.
From to —according to M. Another census, carried out in the Corregimiento de Cuyo in , showed that the Spaniards and Criollos numbered 4, or In smaller but significant numbers came Frenchmen from Occitania ,, 3. From the Russian Empire came some , people 2.
From the Ottoman Empire the contribution was mainly Armenians , Lebanese , and Syrians , some , in all 2. Then come the immigrants from the German Empire , some , 2. From the Austro-Hungarian Empire came , people 1. Among the 75, British immigrants there were many people from England and Wales, but most were Irish who were escaping the potato famine or British rule.
Other minor groups were the Portuguese 65, , Slavic peoples from Yugoslavia 48, , the Swiss 44, , Belgians 26, , Danes 18, , white Americans 12, , the Dutch 10, , and the Swedish 7, Even colonists from Australia, and Boers from South Africa, can be found in the Argentine immigration records.
That makes for According to Argentine records, , people from the Old World entered the country in the s. In the following decade, the flow diminished because the Marshall Plan improved Europe's economy, and emigration was not such a necessity; but even then, between and another , Europeans entered Argentina. In , after the fall of the Communist regimes of the Soviet Union and its allies, the governments of Western Europe were worried about a possible mass exodus from Central Europe and Russia.
President Carlos Menem offered to receive part of that emigratory wave in Argentina. Of the total, 6, were Ukrainians Brazil is one of the few countries in Latin America that includes racial categories in its censuses: Taking into account the data provided by the last National Household Survey, conducted in , Brazil would possess the most numerous white population in Latin America, given that a The white Brazilian population is spread throughout the country, but it is concentrated in the four southernmost states, where Another five states that have significant proportions of whites are Rio de Janeiro In the 18th century, an estimated , Portuguese arrived, including wealthy immigrants, as well as poor peasants, attracted by the Brazil Gold Rush in Minas Gerais.
After independence, Brazil saw several campaigns to attract European immigrants, which were prompted by a policy of Branqueamento Whitening. Between and , 1,, immigrants entered Brazil, an average of 71, people per year, with the peak year being , when , Europeans arrived. After the First World War, the Portuguese once more became the main immigrant group, and Italians fell to third place. Spanish immigrants rose to second place because of the poverty that was affecting millions of rural workers.
Other peoples emigrated from the Middle East, especially from what now are Syria and Lebanon. After the end of the Second World War, European immigration diminished significantly, although between and 1. Some came from Macao , because of the dictatorship there. An autosomal study from , of nearly 1, samples from all regions of Brazil, found predominantly European ancestry, combined with African and Native American contributions in varying degrees:.
The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population.
According to an autosomal DNA study conducted in —of nearly white, pardo, and black samples proportional to population—European ancestry is predominant in all regions of Brazil, with African and Native American contributions. Ancestry informative SNPs can be useful to estimate individual and population biogeographical ancestry.
Brazilian population is characterized by a genetic background of three parental populations European, African, and Brazilian Native Amerindians with a wide degree and diverse patterns of admixture. In this work we analyzed the information content of 28 ancestry-informative SNPs into multiplexed panels using three parental population sources African, Amerindian, and European to infer the genetic admixture in an urban sample of the five Brazilian geopolitical regions.
The SNPs assigned apart the parental populations from each other and thus can be applied for ancestry estimation in a three hybrid admixed population. Data was used to infer genetic ancestry in Brazilians with an admixture model. Pairwise estimates of F st among the five Brazilian geopolitical regions suggested little genetic differentiation only between the South and the remaining regions.
Estimates of ancestry results are consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population, with a major contribution of European ancestry 0. The described multiplexed SNP panels can be useful tool for bio-anthropological studies but it can be mainly valuable to control for spurious results in genetic association studies in admixed populations. It is important to note that "the samples came from free of charge paternity test takers".
Thus, as the researchers make explicit, "the paternity tests were free of charge, the population samples involved people of various socioeconomic strata, although "likely to be leaning slightly towards the pardo group". An autosomal DNA study from found a similar profile: Thus, the only possible basis to deal with genetic variation in Brazilians is not by considering them as members of colour groups, but on a person-by-person basis, as million human beings, with singular genome and life histories".
A autosomal DNA study found Chile to be According to a study performed in ,  Genotype and phenotype in Chileans vary according to social class. Chile was usually an unattractive place for migrants, simply because it was far from Europe and relatively difficult to reach. However, during the 18th century an important flux of emigrants from Spain populated Chile.
They were mostly Basques, who vitalized the economy and rose rapidly in the social hierarchy, becoming part of the political elite that still dominates the country. The Spanish was the most significant European immigration to Chile,  although there was never a massive immigration, such as happened in neighboring Argentina and Uruguay,  and, therefore, the Chilean population wasn't "whitened" to the same extent.
The number of their descendants today is estimated to be ,, or 2. After the failed liberal revolution of in the German states,   a significant German immigration took place, laying the foundation for the German-Chilean community. The census reported that the "nonethnic population," consisting of whites and mestizos those of mixed white European and Amerindian ancestry, including almost all of the urban business and political elite , constituted 86 percent of the national population.
The 86 percent figure is subdivided into 49 percent mestizo and 37 percent white. The census figures show how Colombians see themselves in terms of race. Within years after the first Spanish settlement, nearly 95 percent of all Native Americans in Colombia had died. The majority of the deaths of Native Americans were the cause of diseases such as measles and smallpox, which were spread by European settlers. Many Native Americans were also killed by armed conflicts with European settlers.
Many Spanish colonists came searching for gold, while other Spaniards established themselves as leaders of social organizations teaching natives the Christian faith and the ways of European civilization. Catholic priests provided education for Native Americans that otherwise was unavailable. Between and , 8. It has been suggested that the present day incidence of business entrepreneurship in the region of Antioquia is attributable to the Basque immigration and character traits.
Today many Colombians of the Department of Antioquia region preserve their Basque ethnic heritage. Basque immigrants in Colombia were devoted to teaching and public administration. In the first years of the Andean Multinational Company, Basque sailors navigated as captains and pilots on the majority of the ships until the country was able to train its own crews.
The first and largest wave of immigration from the Middle East began around , and continued during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Due to a lack of information, it is impossible to know the exact number of Lebanese and Syrians that immigrated to Colombia; but for to , 5,—10, is estimated. Syrians and Lebanese are perhaps the biggest immigrant group next to the Spanish since independence. Those who left their homeland in the Middle East to settle in Colombia left for different religious, economic, and political reasons.
In , Barranquilla, Cartagena, Cali, and Bogota are the cities with the largest numbers of Arabic-speakers in Colombia. The mosque of Maicao is the second largest mosque in Latin America. Middle Easterns are generally called Turcos Turkish. In December the United States government estimated that there were 4, Germans living in Colombia. Colombia invited Germans who were on the U. There are many annual festivals that focus German cuisine, specially pastry arts and beer. There are many Colombian-German companies focused on finance, science, education, technology and innovation, and engineering.
According to the National Population Census, 6. Classifying oneself as white is often done to claim membership to the middle class and to distance oneself from the lower class, which is associated being "Indian". For this reason the status of blanco is claimed by people who are not primarily of European heritage. White Ecuadorians, mostly criollos , are descendants of Spanish colonists and also Spanish refugees fleeing the — Spanish Civil War.
Most still hold large amounts of lands, mainly in the northern Sierra , and live in Quito or Guayaquil. There is also a large number of white people in Cuenca , a city in the southern Andes of Ecuador, due to the arrival of Frenchmen in the area, who came to measure the arc of the Earth. Ecuador's Jews consists of Sephardic Jews arriving in the South of the country in the 16th and 17th centuries and Ashkenazi Jews during the s in the main cities of Quito and Cuenca.
Por otra parte, la especie humana es de las pocas, junto con el bonobo Pan paniscus en el reino animal que copula cara a cara, lo cual tiene implicaciones emocionales de gran relevancia para la especie. A diferencia de lo que ocurre en la mayor parte de las otras especies sexuadas, la mujer sigue viviendo mucho tiempo tras la menopausia. En las otras especies la hembra suele fenecer al poco tiempo de llegada la misma. El lenguaje es universal y es usado por naturaleza en las personas y en los animales.
En cambio, cada hombre puede imprimir a sus acciones los rasgos propios de su individualidad; por eso, cuando se analiza un cuadro, una forma de escribir, una manera de fabricar herramientas, etc. Nos divide y separa de unos pueblos; y nos hermana con otros. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Amor , Sexualidad humana y Sistema reproductivo.
Origen de los humanos modernos. Si este es tu caso te recomendamos E-Darling y meetic. Sin duda dos de los mejores sitios para buscar pareja. Las estrategias de precios pueden, en algunos casos, estar a favor de las mujeres: No te preocupes si no sabes cual es tu portal de citas ideal, nosotros de lo contamos. Por otra parte, los servicios que proporcionan a los usuarios un sistema de emparejamiento o afinidad pretenden sugerir una serie de contactos potencialmente interesantes para cada usuario, no es lo mismo una cita casual que las personas que se lanzan a buscar pareja.
Destacamos la web de Solteros 50 por encima de todas. Un sitio de citas online de calidad , tiene como objetivo poner en contacto a sus miembros, para fomentar reuniones satisfactorias, cualquiera que sea su naturaleza. Este es el principio a partir del cual un sitio de citas conecta a las personas , es decir, sugiere a un usuario perfiles para consultar y contactar.