Imperial Cleaning

Culture of Mexico

In the context of WMD issues, this would involve striking WMD arsenals or facilities to eliminate them before broader hostilities ensue.

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An unmanned self-propelled guided vehicle that sustains flight through aerodynamic lift for most of its flight path. There are subsonic and supersonic cruise missiles currently deployed in conventional and nuclear arsenals, while conventional hypersonic cruise missiles are currently in development.

These can be launched from the air, submarines, or the ground. Although they carry smaller payloads, travel at slower speeds, and cover lesser ranges than ballistic missiles, cruise missiles can be programmed to travel along customized flight paths and to evade missile defense systems. The SS denotes a submarine, the G denotes a "guided missile," and the N denotes nuclear power. CS causes tearing and a burning sensation in the eyes, as well as respiratory irritation and tightness. Skin exposure results in tingling or burning.

CS is a white solid and can be dispersed in powdered form, as a liquid solution, or as smoke. A blood agent, cyanogen chloride enters the bloodstream and inhibits the distribution and use of oxygen throughout the body. Organ systems sensitive to low oxygen levels, such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and the pulmonary system, are particularly affected by cyanide poisoning.

At non-lethal dosages, exposure to cyanogen chloride causes eye, skin, and lung irritation. Cyanogen chloride is easier to deliver but less toxic than hydrogen cyanide. To reduce the level of readiness to launch of nuclear weapons systems.

Measures include removing nuclear warheads from missiles, and storing the warheads separately from the missiles. The reduction or removal of radioactive material from a structure, area, object, or person. The Office of Emergency Preparedness OEP of the HHS assists local public health agencies, health care organizations and public safety officials to be able to respond swiftly and effectively to significant public health threats, especially bioterrorism.

The DHS consolidated the activities of all pre-existing non-military government agencies concerned with border control, prevention of terrorism, and emergency response.

Defined by the U. Removing the targeting information from, or substituting ocean-area target coordinates on, a ballistic missile, in order to reduce the consequences of an accidental or unintentional launch. De-targeting cannot be verified, and missiles can be rapidly re-targeted. The actions of a state or group of states to dissuade a potential adversary from initiating an attack or conflict through the credible threat of retaliation.

To be effective, a deterrence strategy should demonstrate to an adversary that the costs of an attack would outweigh any potential gains. See entries for Extended deterrence and nuclear deterrence. A submarine with a diesel-electric transmission. This type of submarine is thus louder and must surface more frequently than a nuclear-powered submarine.

A diesel-electric submarine can fire conventional cruise missiles against land targets, and in theory, can also carry nuclear-tipped cruise missiles. Diesel-electric submarines are significantly cheaper to build and purchase than nuclear-powered vessels, which makes them the vessel of choice for smaller navies.

A technique for uranium enrichment in which the lighter Uranium isotopes in UF6 gas move through a porous barrier more rapidly than the heavier Uranium isotopes. A vomiting agent, DA can be used as a riot-control agent or to force enemies to remove their protective gear. A white odorless crystal, DA and other vomiting agents are typically delivered as aerosols. Currently, DA is less prominent than other more easily weaponized agents. A choking agent, diphosgene causes lung irritation leading to the build-up of fluid in the lungs.

A colorless liquid at room temperature, diphosgene, like phosgene, smells like hay or young corn, and was delivered using artillery shells during World War I. An informal term for a radiological dispersal device RDD , a device pairing conventional explosives with radiological materials. Once detonated, the conventional explosives disperse the radioactive material, radioactively contaminating the target area.

DNA molecules carry the genetic information necessary for the organization and functioning of most living cells, and control the inheritance of genetic characteristics. This is done by mixing HEU and the blendstock of natural, depleted, or slightly enriched uranium in either liquid or gas form.

See highly enriched uranium and low enriched uranium. See Multiple Independently-targetable Reentry Vehicle. An item that has both civilian and military applications. For example, many of the precursor chemicals used in the manufacture of chemical weapons have legitimate civilian industrial uses, such as the production of pesticides or ink for ballpoint pens. The EAPC meets periodically at the level of ambassadors and foreign and defense ministers; when appropriate, heads of state and government of the 49 members also meet.

It consisted of five Western countries, five Eastern Soviet bloc countries, and eight non-aligned countries, with the United States and Soviet Union as co-chairs. A sharp pulse of radio-frequency long wavelength radiation produced when an explosion occurs in an asymmetrical environment, especially at or near the earth's surface or at high altitudes.

The intense electric and magnetic fields can damage unprotected electrical and electronic equipment over a large area. An elementary particle with a negative charge and a mass of 0. Electrons surround the positively charged nucleus and determine the chemical properties of the atom. Uranium with an increased concentration of the isotope U, relative to natural uranium. Natural uranium contains 0. Nuclear power plant fuel typically uses uranium enriched to 3 to 5 percent U, material that is not sufficiently enriched to be used for nuclear weapons.

The moment at which all provisions of a treaty are legally binding on its parties. Every treaty specifies preconditions for its entry into force. For example, the NPT specified that it would enter into force after the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union the Depository governments and 40 other countries ratified the treaty, an event that occurred on March 5, See entries for Signature , Ratification.

Launched in to facilitate the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes within the European Community. This approach to the organization of ballistic missile defense efforts in Europe was announced by U. President Barack Obama's administration in September It originally envisioned four phases of technological development and deployment between and Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel announced in March that the fourth and final phase of EPAA would not be implemented, citing development problems and funding cuts.

National laws or international arrangements established to restrict the sale of certain goods to certain countries, or to ensure that safeguards or end-use guarantees are applied to the export and sale of sensitive and dual-use technologies and materials. See entry for Dual-use. See entry for Deterrence. The process of the descent to the earth's surface of particles contaminated with radioactive material from a radioactive cloud. The term is also applied in a collective sense to the contaminated particulate matter itself.

The early or local fallout is defined, somewhat arbitrarily, as those particles which reach the earth within 24 hours after a nuclear explosion. The delayed or worldwide fallout consists of the smaller particles which ascend into the upper troposphere and stratosphere, to be carried by winds to all parts of the earth. The delayed fallout is brought to earth, mainly by rain and snow, over extended periods ranging from months to years, and can contaminate the animal food-chain. Fast breeder reactors are designed to produce more fissile material than they consume.

The surplus fissile material is produced by surrounding the core of the reactor with a blanket of fertile U, which is transmuted to plutonium Pu However, fast reactors do not have to operate as breeders. The same underlying fast reactor technology can be used to burn or consume plutonium and other actinides, such as americium and neptunium. Such reactors are known as fast burner reactors. The principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice.

The mission of the FBI is to uphold the law through the investigation of violations of federal criminal law; to protect the United States from foreign intelligence and terrorist activities; to provide leadership and law enforcement assistance to federal, state, local, and international agencies; and to perform these responsibilities in a manner that is responsive to the needs of the public and is faithful to the Constitution of the United States.

The governor of the state in question must request assistance from the president before FEMA can respond. Disasters are "declared" after hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquakes, or other similar events strike a community. The first of six Main Committees of the United Nations General Assembly which deals with all issues related to disarmament and international security. See entry for United Nations General Assembly. For additional information, see the NTI Inventory.

Emergency personnel who are the first to arrive at the scene of an incident, including firefighters, police, and emergency medical technicians EMTs. In most cases, these are the local authorities in the affected area. The introduction of nuclear weapons, or other weapons of mass destruction, into a conflict. In agreeing to a "no-first-use" policy, a country states that it will not use nuclear weapons first, but only under retaliatory circumstances. See entry for No-First-Use.

Uranium, Uranium, and Plutonium are all fissile isotopes. A type of fissionable material capable of sustaining a chain reaction by undergoing fission upon the absorption of low-energy or thermal neutrons. Uranium, Plutonium, and Uranium are the most prominently discussed fissile materials for peaceful and nuclear weapons purposes.

Treaty currently under discussion in the Conference on Disarmament CD to end the production of weapons-usable fissile material highly enriched uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons. For additional information, see the FMCT. The splitting of the nucleus of a heavy atom into two lighter nuclei called fission fragments. It is accompanied by the release of neutrons, gamma rays, and fission fragments with large amounts of kinetic energy. It is usually triggered by absorption of a neutron, but in some cases may be induced by protons, gamma rays or other particles.

An isotope whose nuclei can undergo fission, but requires the absorption of high-energy neutrons. Uranium is an example of a fissionable isotope. A nuclear bomb based on the concept of releasing energy through the fission splitting of heavy isotopes, such as Uranium or Plutonium Nuclei formed by the fission of heavy elements. Almost all are radioactive. Examples include strontium and cesium A nuclear-powered submarine designed to deliver ballistic missile attacks against assigned targets from either a submerged or surfaced condition.

The project envisages the domestic use and export of these plants to provide a power generation capability to remote regions, and to enhance resource extraction efforts.

The configuration of a country's nuclear or conventional forces. For example, in the United States and Russia, nuclear forces are structured in a triad, with nuclear warheads deployed on bombers, land-based missiles, and sea-based missiles.

Fuel bank concepts are typically envisioned as diminishing the incentive for countries to develop indigenous uranium enrichment capabilities. A term for the full spectrum of processes associated with utilizing nuclear fission reactions for peaceful or military purposes. The fuel is used in a nuclear reactor to produce neutrons that can, for example, produce thermal reactions to generate electricity or propulsion, or produce fissile materials for weapons.

Refers to a set of measures implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency to detect, in a timely manner, the diversion of a significant quantity of nuclear material by monitoring various stages in the nuclear fuel cycle of a non-nuclear weapon state.

An approach to religious observance that favors a literalist or extreme interpretation of, and strict adherence to, a religion's core texts. A common theme is the attempt to return to the simplicity of belief and interpretation which is believed to reflect the original character of the religion's founder or founders. This approach is often combined with religiously justified political agendas which because they are divinely inspired, are not subject to negotiation or discussion.

Fundamentalism is not specific to any single religion, and fundamentalist movements can be found within Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, and Judaism among other religions. Nuclear fusion is a type of nuclear reaction in which two atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus, releasing energy. For a fusion reaction to take place, the nuclei, which are positively charged, must have enough kinetic energy to overcome their electrostatic force of repulsion also called the Coulomb Barrier.

Thermonuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium will produce a helium nucleus and an energetic neutron. This is one basis of the Hydrogen Bomb, which employs a brief, uncontrolled thermonuclear fusion reaction. A great effort is now underway to harness thermonuclear fusion as a source of power. Launched in at the G-8 Summit in Kananaskis, the G-8 Global Partnership is a multilateral initiative for financial commitments to implement and coordinate chemical, biological, and nuclear threat reduction activities on a global scale.

Originally granted a ten-year lifespan and focused primarily on activities in the former Soviet Union, the Partnership has since been extended beyond ; it has also expanded its membership and scope of activities globally.

High-energy, short wavelength, electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus. Gamma radiation frequently accompanies alpha and beta emissions and always accompanies fission. Gamma rays are very penetrating and are best stopped or shielded by dense materials, such as lead or depleted uranium.

Gamma rays are similar to x-rays but have higher energies. Formally known as the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, this protocol prohibits the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous, or other gases, and bans bacteriological warfare. It was opened for signature on 17 June For additional information, see the Geneva Protocol.

A multilateral initiative of a subset of World Health Organization member states to strengthen national and global capacities to detect and prevent the spread of infectious disease, whether natural or deliberate.

Launched as a five-year initiative in February , participating states agreed in the Kampala Declaration to extend the program to A mission assigned to U. A program established by the U. Bush administration, the GBI would intercept incoming ballistic missile warheads outside the earth's atmosphere exo-atmospheric and collide with the incoming ballistic missile, thereby destroying the missile.

The GBI would consist of a multi-stage solid propellant booster and an exo-atmospheric kill vehicle. A device in which two or more pieces of fissionable material, each smaller than a critical mass, are brought together very rapidly so as to form a supercritical mass which can explode as the result of a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction.

The time in which one half of the atoms of a particular radioactive substance decay. Measured half-lives vary from millionths of a second to billions of years, depending on the isotope. Also called physical or radiological half-life. The HCOC was established to bolster efforts to curb ballistic missile proliferation worldwide and to further delegitimize such proliferation by fostering consensus among states on how they should conduct their trade in missiles and dual-use items.

A group of viruses that cause characteristic hemorrhaging bleeding resulting from damage to the vascular system and impairment of bodily regulation. The diseases caused by hemorrhagic fever viruses include Marburg, Ebola, Yellow fever, and Lassa fever.

Primarily found in rodents and arthropods, human outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers are very rare and thus, they are less thoroughly understood than the more commonly occurring human viral diseases. North Korea may have also weaponized hemorrhagic fever viruses. Under the terms of the agreement, the United States would purchase tons of HEU over a year period from the former Soviet weapons program, dilute it to low-enriched uranium, and sell it as fuel for nuclear power plants on the commercial market.

The Japanese word translates literally to "explosion-affected people. Achieved via the process of enrichment. See entry for enriched uranium. More than , people were killed.

See entry for Proliferation. See entries for Nuclear weapon and Thermonuclear weapon. A blood agent, hydrogen cyanide AC harms its victims by entering the bloodstream and disrupting the distribution and use of oxygen throughout the body. This causes serious dysfunction in organ systems sensitive to low oxygen levels, such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and the pulmonary system.

Hydrogen cyanide can be disseminated as a liquid, aerosol, or gas. Notoriously, Nazi Germany used hydrogen cyanide as a genocidal agent during the Holocaust. A chemical agent that causes psychological or mental effects in victims that prevent them from performing assigned missions, duties, or tasks. The effects of incapacitating agents dissipate or disappear over time. The India-Pakistan Non-Attack Agreement is a unique bilateral agreement that obligates India and Pakistan to refrain from undertaking, encouraging, or participating in actions aimed at causing destruction or damage to nuclear installations or facilities in each country.

This study discussed multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle, the development of regional fuel-cycle facilities, and cooperation on the storage of plutonium. The document created the full-scope safeguards system whereby any non-nuclear weapon state party to the NPT agrees to establish and maintain a system of accounting and control of all nuclear material under its jurisdiction.

Accordingly, non-nuclear weapon states which are party to or have signed but not ratified the NPT must conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA. It was revised in June to cover reactors of any size. The Model Protocol grants IAEA inspectors additional physical access to sites of IAEA member states where nuclear material is or could be present, expands the use of unannounced inspections, and allows for the collection of environmental samples.

See entry for Additional Protocol. The model safeguards agreement approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency in February to safeguard individual nuclear facilities. The guidelines were later revised to include reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants. It was most widely employed prior to the advent of nonproliferation treaties in the s requiring full-scope safeguards.

Refers to the IAEA knowledge-based approach to nuclear facility safeguards that involves, among other things, the development of state-specific evaluations and the analysis of all source intelligence. A ballistic missile with a range greater than 5, km. See entry for ballistic missile. A treaty between the United States and the former Soviet Union, signed on 8 December , which entered into force on 1 June It aimed to eliminate and ban all ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with a range of between and 3, miles to 5, kilometers.

The treaty required the United States and the Soviet Union to conduct inspections at each other's sites during the elimination of treaty-limited items TLI. By May , all intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles, launchers, related support equipment, and support structures were eliminated. For additional information, see the INF Treaty. The IAEA consists of three principal organs: For additional information, see the IAEA.

A legally non-binding arrangement that was launched with the objective of preventing and curbing the proliferation of ballistic missile systems capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction. States adhering to the ICOC agree not to assist ballistic missile programs in countries suspected of developing biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons, as well as to exhibit "restraint" in the development and testing of their own ballistic missiles.

For additional information, see the HCOC. It opened for signature on 14 September The Convention addresses the unlawful possession or use of nuclear devices or materials by non-state actors.

The Convention calls on states to develop a legal framework criminalizing offenses related to nuclear terrorism, as well as for international cooperation in nuclear terrorism investigations and prosecutions.

For additional information, see the Nuclear Terrorism Convention. Established in , the Moscow-based ISTC serves as a clearinghouse for developing, approving, financing, and monitoring projects aimed at engaging weapon scientists and engineers from the Newly Independent States NIS in peaceful civilian science and technology activities.

Through its projects, the ISTC contributes to ongoing efforts to stem the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction See entry for Science and Technology Center Ukraine. For additional information, see the ISTC. Any two or more forms of an element having identical or very closely related chemical properties and the same atomic number the same number of protons in their nuclei , but different atomic weights or mass numbers a different number of neutrons in their nuclei.

Uranium and uranium are isotopes of uranium. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management opened for signature in and entered into force in The Convention aims to achieve and maintain a high level of safety in spent fuel and radioactive waste management; ensure that there are effective defenses against potential hazards during all stages of management of such materials; and prevent accidents with radiological consequences.

On 20 January , both North and South Korea signed the Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, whereby both states agreed not to "test, produce, receive, possess, store, deploy or use nuclear weapons; to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes; and not to possess facilities for nuclear reprocessing or uranium enrichment.

However, as the result of revelations about North Korea's nuclear program and failure to reach agreement on the reciprocal inspection regime, implementation has been stalled since For additional information, see the Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

A term used to quantify the energy of a nuclear explosion that is equivalent to the explosion of 1, tons of trinitrotoluene TNT conventional explosive. Its primary responsibilities were to finance and supply the agreed to light-water reactor LWR project, to provide heavy oil to the DPRK to meet its interim heating and electricity-generation needs, and to provide for the implementation of other measures required under the terms of the Agreed Framework.

See entry for Agreed Framework. For additional information, see KEDO. A lachrymator is a chemical agent that causes victims to produce tears from the eyes. The Treaty of Tlatelolco was the first international agreement that aimed to exclude nuclear weapons from an inhabited region of the globe.

The member states accept the application of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on all their nuclear activities. For additional information, see the Treaty of Tlatelolco. Under this Convention, information on the object launched into space, including the date and location of the launch and the function of the object in space is to be communicated to the UN Secretary General as soon as practicable. A layered approach would include a first layer e. The dose of radiation expected to cause death to an exposed population within 30 days to 50 percent of those exposed.

Lewisite is a blister agent that like mustard causes eye, skin, and airway irritation, but unlike mustard, acts immediately rather than with a delay. With significant exposure, lewisite can cause blindness. A colorless liquid, lewisite can be dispersed as a gas or a liquid. Lewisite L has no known medical or other non-military uses. Several countries, including Japan, the United States, and the Soviet Union, have produced and stockpiled lewisite.

A term used to describe reactors using ordinary water, where the hydrogen is hydrogen-1, as a coolant and moderator, including boiling water reactors BWRs and pressurized water reactors PWRs , the most common types used in the United States. Also known as the Partial Test Ban Treaty , the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water prohibits nuclear weapons tests "or any other nuclear explosion" in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water.

While the treaty does not ban tests underground, it does prohibit nuclear explosions in this environment if they cause "radioactive debris to be present outside the territorial limits of the State under whose jurisdiction or control" the explosions were conducted. The treaty is of unlimited duration. For additional information, see the PTBT. LEU is used as fuel for many nuclear reactor designs. See entry for Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator.

An integrated system of physical protection, material accounting, and material control measures designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of nuclear materials. See entry for Cooperative Threat Reduction.

See entry for Radioisotopes. MEU is sometimes used to fuel research reactors. The energy equivalent released by 1, kilotons 1,, tons of trinitrotoluene TNT explosive. Typically used as the unit of measurement to express the amount of energy released by a nuclear bomb. The Parties agreed not to develop, produce, acquire in any way, stockpile or retain, transfer directly or indirectly, or use chemical or biological weapons.

Prior to the entry into force of the Chemical Weapons Convention CWC , and in conformity with international law, the parties intended to establish in their respective countries the appropriate inspection mechanisms for those substances defined as precursors or chemical warfare agents. For additional information, see the Mendoza Agreement. In April , Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak proposed the establishment in the Middle East of a zone free of all types of weapons of mass destruction.

The result was a resolution calling for a meeting on the establishment of a Middle East WMD-free zone in , to be attended by all states of the region. The meeting was subsequently postponed due to the parties' failure to convene in The second phase in the flight path of a ballistic missile, following the boost and preceding the terminal phase. The midcourse phase is the longest phase in the flight path of a ballistic missile.

For an ICBM, it lasts about 20 minutes. Its relatively long duration has rendered the midcourse phase the preferred point for interception by ballistic missile defense systems.

An informal arrangement established in April by an association of supplier states concerned about the proliferation of missile equipment and technology relevant to missiles that are capable of carrying a payload over kilograms over a kilometer range.

Though originally intended to restrict the proliferation of nuclear-capable missiles, the regime has been expanded to restrict the spread of unmanned aerial vehicles. For additional information, see the MTCR. A type of nuclear fuel used in light water reactors that consists of plutonium blended with uranium natural, depleted or reprocessed. The MOX process also enables disposition of military plutonium, with the resulting fuel usable for energy generation.

Negotiations, agreements or treaties that are concluded among three or more parties, countries, etc. An offensive ballistic missile system with multiple warheads, each of which can strike a separate target and can be launched by a single booster rocket. Mustard is a blister agent, or vesicant. The term mustard gas typically refers to sulfur mustard HD , despite HD being neither a mustard nor a gas.

Sulfur mustard gained notoriety during World War I for causing more casualties than all of the other chemical agents combined. Victims develop painful blisters on their skin, as well as lung and eye irritation leading to potential pulmonary edema and blindness. However, mustard exposure is usually not fatal. A liquid at room temperature, sulfur mustard has been delivered using artillery shells and aerial bombs.

A condition of deterrence which exists between two adversaries. A term originating in the Cold War, which described the deterrence relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union beginning in the s.

MAD assumed that both sides possessed an assured second-strike capability such that a nuclear first-strike by either side would provide no strategic advantage—because both states would suffer unacceptably high damage in the ensuing nuclear war. More than 74, people were killed. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Response Division, Operations Branch, and has the responsibility for managing and coordinating the federal medical response to major emergencies and federally declared disasters, including natural disasters, technological disasters, major transportation accidents, and acts of terrorism including Weapons of Mass Destruction.

It is an agency under the U. Department of Health and Human Services. Satellites, aircraft, electronic, and seismic monitoring devices used to monitor the activities of other states, including treaty compliance and movement of troops and equipment. Some agreements include measures that explicitly prohibit tampering with other parties' NTM.

See entries for Transparency measures and Verification. A pledge by a nuclear weapon state that it will not use nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear weapon state. Some states have policies that allow for the use of nuclear weapons if attacked with other WMD by a non-nuclear weapon state. See entry for Positive security assurances. A nerve agent is a chemical weapon that attacks the human nervous system, leading to uncontrolled nerve cell excitation and muscle contraction.

Specifically, nerve agents block the enzyme cholinesterease, so acetylcholine builds up in the nerve junction and the neuron cannot return to the rest state. The development of both the G-series and V-series nerve agents occurred alongside pesticide development. An uncharged particle with a mass slightly greater than that of the proton, and found in the nucleus of every atom heavier than hydrogen Slovenia later withdrew from the NAC.

The NAC called for the five nuclear weapon states and the three nuclear-capable states to make an unequivocal commitment to nuclear disarmament and to begin multilateral negotiations that would lead to the elimination of nuclear weapons through a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

A treaty between the United States and Russia on further limitations and reductions of strategic offensive weapons, signed on 8 April , which entered into force on 5 February Victims develop painful blisters on the skin, as well as lung and eye irritation leading to potential pulmonary edema and blindness.

All three nitrogen mustards are liquids at room temperature. The three nitrogen mustards HN-1, HN-2, and HN-3 are closely related in structure both to each other and to the sulfur mustard HD , which has been more frequently used on the battlefield.

Apart from their potential use as chemical warfare agents, nitrogen mustards can also be used to treat certain types of cancer. A pledge on the part of a nuclear weapon state not to be the first party to use nuclear weapons in a conflict or crisis. No-first-use guarantees may be made in unilateral statements, bilateral or multilateral agreements, or as part of a treaty creating a nuclear-weapon-free zone.

The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War as an organization of states that did not seek to formally align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union, but sought to remain independent or neutral.

NAM identifies the right of independent judgment, the struggle against imperialism and neo-colonialism, and the use of moderation in relations with all big powers as the three basic elements that have influenced its approach. For additional information, see the NAM. Article VI of the NPT commits states possessing nuclear weapons to negotiate in good faith toward halting the arms race and the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. The Treaty stipulates that non-nuclear-weapon states will not seek to acquire nuclear weapons, and will accept International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on their nuclear activities, while nuclear weapon states commit not to transfer nuclear weapons to other states.

All states have a right to the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and should assist one another in its development. The NPT provides for conferences of member states to review treaty implementation at five-year intervals. Initially of a year duration, the NPT was extended indefinitely in For additional information, see the NPT. See entry for Tactical nuclear weapons. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is a military alliance that was formed in to help deter the Soviet Union from attacking Europe.

The treaty originally created an alliance of 10 European and two North American independent states, but today NATO has 28 members who have committed to maintaining and developing their defense capabilities, to consulting on issues of mutual security concern, and to the principle of collective self-defense.

For additional information, see NATO. Named after Section of the U. Atomic Energy Act of , this type of agreement governs U. Refers to the process of investigating the origin of nuclear material, for example in nuclear materials trafficking cases. For a related concept, see attribution. This term may be used to denote a nuclear power reactor, a nuclear research reactor, a critical facility, a conversion plant, a fabrication plant, a reprocessing plant, an isotope separation plant, a separate storage installation, or any other facility at which fresh or irradiated nuclear material or significant quantities of radioactive materials are present.

Under a mandate from the U. Congress, the Department of Defense regularly conducts a comprehensive Nuclear Posture Review to set forth the direction of U. See entry for Fleet ballistic missile submarine. A facility that generates electricity using a nuclear reactor as its heat source to provide steam to a turbine generator.

A vessel in which nuclear fission may be sustained and controlled in a chain nuclear reaction. The varieties are many, but all incorporate certain features, including: A series of international summits that emerged out of U. President Barack Obama's call in April to "secure all vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years.

The NSG was established in , and its members commit themselves to exporting sensitive nuclear technologies only to countries that adhere to strict non-proliferation standards. For additional information, see the NSG. See entry for Extended deterrence. A device that releases nuclear energy in an explosive manner as the result of nuclear chain reactions involving fission, or fission and fusion, of atomic nuclei. Current existing nuclear-weapon-free zones are all located in the Southern Hemisphere.

The Mongolian government declared itself a single-state nuclear-weapon-free zone at the 47th session of the UN General Assembly in For additional information, see the nuclear weapons-free status of Mongolia. A geographical area in which nuclear weapons may not legally be built, possessed, transferred, deployed, or tested. Protocols to NWFZs provide for the obligations and rights of non-parties to the zones, and of the nuclear weapon states with reference to those states that are party to the NWFZs and the regions covered.

Coincidentally, these five states are also permanent members of the UN Security Council. The central, positively charged region of an atom. Except for the nucleus of ordinary hydrogen or hydrogen-1 , which has only a proton, all atomic nuclei contain both protons and neutrons. The number of protons determines the total positive charge or atomic number. This number is the same for all the atomic nuclei of a given chemical element.

The total number of neutrons and protons is called the mass number or atomic mass number. See entry for Department of Health and Human Services. See entry for Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Its purpose is to guarantee European security and human rights. For additional information, see the OSCE. The OPCW meets annually, and in special sessions when necessary. For additional information, see the OPCW. The OAU was established to promote the unity of African countries in See entry for the Treaty of Pelindaba.

The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies prohibits the placement of Weapons of Mass Destruction in orbit around the earth, on the moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise in outer space. The treaty also stipulates that the exploration and use of outer space be carried out for the benefit and in the interest of all countries, and that the moon and other celestial bodies are to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes.

It was opened for signature on 27 January , and entered into force on 10 October For additional information, see the Outer Space Treaty. The five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council: Passive defenses are measures intended to reduce the consequences of a WMD attack e. See entry for Active Defenses. The Patriot, first deployed in , is the U. PNEs are nuclear explosions carried out for non-military purposes, such as the construction of harbors or canals.

PNEs are technically indistinguishable from nuclear explosions of a military nature. The agreement governs all nuclear explosions conducted outside of nuclear test sites specifically named in the Threshold Test Ban Treaty. Many of its provisions were superseded by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which bans all nuclear explosions. For additional information, see the PNET.

In the context of chemical agents, the ability to remain in liquid form without evaporating for some length of time at normal temperatures and pressures. An architecture for missile defense in Europe proposed by the U. Obama administration for countering the perceived growing ballistic missile threat from Iran. The phased, adaptive approach, as envisioned, would use land-and-sea-based SM-3 interceptors and sophisticated sensors deployed in southern and northern Europe.

These systems could potentially provide Europe and the U. The approach would deploy this technology in phases as it continues to mature from to A choking agent, phosgene gas causes damage to the respiratory system leading to fluid build-up in the lungs.

Phosgene also causes coughing, throat and eye irritation, tearing, and blurred vision. A gas at room temperature, phosgene can be delivered as a pressurized liquid that quickly converts to gas.

Although sometimes described as a vesicant, phosgene oxime CX does not in fact produce vesicles, and would be more appropriately classified as a urticant or nettle agent.

Although phosgene is among the least studied chemical weapons, it is one of the fastest working and produces immediate and severe skin and eye pain. Tissue damage and death, as well as build-up of fluid in the lungs, follow. Phosgene oxime can be delivered as a thermal fog or in liquid form, and imparts a disagreeable odor. The disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

There are three forms of plague: Bubonic plague refers to infection of the lymph nodes by Y. Although no longer a serious public health hazard in the developed world, the bacterium can spread from person-to-person in aerosolized form, and has been investigated as a biological weapon by Japan and the Soviet Union. A transuranic element with atomic number 94, produced when uranium is irradiated in a reactor. It is used primarily in nuclear weapons and, along with uranium, in mixed-oxide MOX fuel.

Plutonium, a fissile isotope, is the most suitable isotope for use in nuclear weapons. A guarantee given by a nuclear weapon state to a non-nuclear weapon state for assistance if the latter is targeted or threatened with nuclear weapons.

See entry for Negative security assurances. Refers to the speech given by U. An attack launched to preempt expected aggression by an enemy. In the context of WMD issues, this would involve striking WMD arsenals or facilities to eliminate them before broader hostilities ensue. The Preparatory Commission is an international organization tasked with building, certifying and operating the infrastructure for the detection and investigation of nuclear tests, preparing the regulations for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization CTBTO , and leading activities that will facilitate the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty CTBT.

The organization will cease operations following the entry into force of the CTBT. A series of initiatives announced in by U.

Bush and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, declaring that their two countries would reduce tactical nuclear weapons arsenals and associated delivery systems. A reactor in which the water which flows through the core is isolated from the turbine, unlike in a boiling water reactor. The primary water, contained in one loop, travels through an additional heat exchanger or steam generator and produces steam in the secondary loop which, in turn, powers the turbine. See entry for Boiling water reactor.

Horizontal proliferation refers to the spread of WMD to states that have not previously possessed them. Vertical proliferation refers to an increase in the quantity or capabilities of existing WMD arsenals within a state. Members of the initiative share a set of 13 common principles, which guide PSI efforts.

For more information, see the PSI. A proposed international treaty that would establish provisions that prohibit the development, testing, production, stockpiling, transfer, use and threat of use of nuclear weapons, as well as provide for their elimination, similar to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention.

For additional information, see the proposed Nucler Weapons Convention. A negotiated document often intended to supplement a treaty or agreement, stipulating specific actions that should be taken to fulfill the terms of the agreement, or modifying the agreement. Established in , the Pugwash Conference is an annual meeting of scholars and public figures who discuss and debate arms control and security issues in an unofficial manner, rather than as official representatives of their governments or international organizations.

A type of research reactor with which repeated short, intense surges of power and radiation can be produced. The neutron flux during each surge is much higher than could be tolerated during steady-state operation.

However, these reactors are generally used for defense, not civilian, purposes and would thus not be covered by a civilian ban. The QDR outlines the U. Its release coincides with presidential elections. Radiation that has sufficient energy to remove electrons from substances that it passes through, forming ions. May include alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other particles capable of producing ions.

Any material that absorbs radiation, which may be used to protect personnel or materials from the effects of ionizing radiation. Usually a sealed source of radiation used in teletherapy and industrial radiography, as a power source for batteries, or in various types of industrial gauges.

Machines, such as accelerators, radioisotope generators, and natural radionuclides may be considered sources. Some sources are also used for research and experimentation. The complex of symptoms resulting from excessive exposure of the human body to acute ionizing radiation. The earliest symptoms may include nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea, which may be followed by loss of hair, hemorrhage, inflammation of the mouth and throat, and a general loss of energy.

In severe cases, where the radiation has been approximately 1, rad acute dose or more, death may occur within two to four weeks. Those who survive six weeks after the receipt of a single large dose of radiation to the whole body may generally be expected to recover. This is most often in the form of either alpha or beta particles, gamma radiation, or spontaneous fission where the nucleus undergoes fission without the bombardment of a particle or photon.

Each radioactive isotope has an associated half-life, and the amount of radioactive material decreases over time as the material decays. The spontaneous emission of radiation, generally alpha or beta particles, often accompanied by gamma rays, from the nucleus of an unstable isotope.

A technique for estimating the age of an object by measuring the amounts of various radioisotopes in it. An unstable isotope of an element that decays or disintegrates spontaneously, emitting energy radiation. Approximately 5, natural and artificial radioisotopes have been identified.

Some radioisotopes, such as Molybdenum, are used for medical applications, such as diagnostics. These isotopes are created by the irradiation of targets in research reactors. Radiological dispersion device RDD: Any device, other than a nuclear explosive device, designed to spread radioactive material.

Terrorist acts intended to release harmful radiation, through sabotage of a nuclear facility or the detonation of a radiological dispersal device RDD. See radiological dispersal device. The Rapacki Plan was a proposal to establish a zone free of nuclear weapons in Central and Eastern Europe named after the Polish foreign minister, Adam Rapacki, in Although the plan was not negotiated seriously due to the Cold War security environment, several elements of the Rapacki Plan were later adopted as guidelines for the establishment of denuclearized zones.

The implementation of the formal process established by a country to legally bind its government to a treaty, such as approval by a parliament. In the United States, treaty ratification requires approval by the president after he or she has received the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate. Procedures to ratify a treaty follow its signature. See entries for Entry into force and Signature. The reversal of measures to deactivate or de-alert missiles, or the return of former military facilities or equipment to military use.

In the case of missile re-activation, warheads are removed from storage facilities and redeployed on missiles. The portion of the trajectory of a ballistic missile or space vehicle when the vehicle reenters the earth's atmosphere. A nuclear warhead on a ballistic missile specially designed to reenter the earth's atmosphere in the terminal portion of the missile's trajectory. An institution in which rules or practices sometimes formalized in a treaty or convention , are generally accepted by a group of states to facilitate cooperation in an otherwise anarchic international system.

National Nuclear Security Administration and funded by Congress from to The program aimed to research and develop new components to replace parts of existing warheads without utilizing nuclear testing, but failed due to immense political controversy.

In the context of threat reduction, repatriation refers to the process of returning nuclear materials e. The chemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel to separate the remaining usable plutonium and uranium for re-fabrication into fuel, or alternatively, to extract the plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. Under the program, the United States has worked to develop new LEU fuels, and to convert research reactors and critical assemblies to these fuels at home and abroad.

See entry for the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. Unlike commercial power reactors, they are not designed to generate power. Refers to economic and psychological endurance and adaptation in the wake of an attack or a terrorist act. The Rio Group does not have a secretariat or permanent body, and is governed by yearly summits of the heads of state.

Originally acting as an alternative to the Organization of American States, the Rio Group works to expand and systematize political cooperation among the member states, examine international issues which may be of interest and coordinate common positions on these issues, and explore new fields of cooperation to enhance development.

For additional information, see the Rio Group. A riot-control agent, or RCA, is a chemical weapon of relative low-toxicity that produces highly irritating effects upon contact. Although designed to be non-lethal, RCAs can produce death in high concentrations or against particularly vulnerable victims.

Most commonly, RCAs are lachrymators such as tear gas. The RNEP was never built. One problem is that the water may be cloudy from sediment, which can be fixed with a dash of salt. But when they added a little bentonite along with salt to water that contained other types of clay soils, it worked just as well. Pierce says the method works because bentonite clays have an electrostatic charge — which makes them attracted to the charged ions in the salt. When bentonite is mixed with other particles, they stick together, and the salt pulls everything out of the water.

Some lime juice, on the other hand, cuts down the amount of time necessary to disinfect a two liter bottle of water from six hours to just half an hour. Many fruits and vegetables, including citrus, have psoralens too, so the hack is not specific to limes. With common ingredients and some ingenuity, sunlight becomes an even more effective disinfectant. When in need of clean water and only cloudy is available, I will be sure to ask for it with a lime and on the rocks of salt.

G Wilkins — only if your sun-tea has salt and bentonite in it, and is not cloudy. Any word on what chemicals are leeched into the water from the plastic bottle being exposed to sunlight?! Any word on what percentage of actual UV light makes it through the glass, if a glass bottle is used to avoid leeching of chemicals from the plastic ones?! The last paragraph of the article explains how certain compounds contained in lime juice kill pathogens. Thirst or dysentery will both kill you a lot faster than BPA will.

IW yes they addressed in the video the concerns of this method. One man understated this by saying that we are constantly exposed to free radicals, but i personally would not drink these free radicals because why would i want to expose my body to these by drinking them….

Sorry if this was in the video — link here too slow to watch. Will keep the link and see it when I get home!

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